Down syndrome, also known as TRISONOMY 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of the third copy of chromosome 21.
Usually, every cell is made up of a pair of 23 chromosomes but in down syndrome, there’s an extra 21 chromosome 21 which causes the various abnormalities
It is usually associated with physical growth delays, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features.
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The average IQ of a young adult with Down syndrome is 50, equivalent People with Down syndrome may have a higher chance of some health problems(heart defects, hypothyroidism, or problems with their bones, higher risk of problems seeing or hearing) than other people.
They may also have lower immunity which means you may get sick more often, especially in early childhood.
They have the mental ability of an eight- or nine-year-old child, but this can vary widely.
The parents of the affected individual are usually genetically normal. The probability increases from less than 0.1% in 20-year-old mothers to 3% in those of age 45.
The extra chromosome is believed to occur by chance, with no known behavioral activity or environmental factor that changes the probability.
Down syndrome can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening followed by diagnostic testing or after birth by direct observation and genetic testing.
Since the introduction of screening, Down syndrome pregnancies are often aborted, because there is no cure for Down syndrome.
Proper care and education have been shown to improve the quality of life, Support in financial and legal matters is often needed.
Life expectancy is around 50 to 60 years in the developed world with proper health care. Regular screening for health problems common in Down syndrome is
recommended throughout the person’s life. Down syndrome is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities in humans, it affects about 5000 babies at birth every year,
HERE ARE SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF DOWN SYNDROME (TRISONOMY 21)
- Mental impairment
- Abnormal teeth
- Stunted growth
- Slanted eyes
- Umbilical hernia
- Shortened hands
- Increased skin on the back of the neck
- Short neck
- Low muscle tone
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- The narrow roof of the mouth
- Bent fifth fingertip
- Brushfield spots in the iris
- Flexible ligaments
- Single transverse palmar crease
- Proportionally large tongue
- Protruding tongue
- Abnormal outer ears
- Congenital heart disease
- Flattened nose
- Separation of first and second toes
- Undescended testicles